The two types of cells in the nose are the primary infection sites of COVID-19, and these two types of cells are likely to be the virus repository for efficient human-to-human transmission of COVID-19.
Recent clinical studies have also found that if patients are infected with COVID-19, the viral load of nasal swabs is significantly higher than that of pharyngeal swabs. This led the Sungnak team to think that the nasal epithelium might be the gateway to initial infection and transmission of a COVID-19. They found that in cells with high ACE2 expression levels, there was an increase in the expression of genes associated with innate and antiviral immune function. The researchers think this may be because the cells are more susceptible to infection, so they also express high levels of immune-related genes to reduce the risk of infection.
The team's data also showed that the virus's ability to spread depends on the spatial distribution of related receptors and proteins in the respiratory tract. The goblet cells in the nasal cavity are secretory cells, and a novel coronavirus might take advantage of the continued secretory action of goblet cells to begin the journey of transmission before symptoms appear.
The nose is actually a mirror of human health. In the event of a serious illness, white blood cells secrete a green enzyme that causes the mucus to appear yellow or green. The normal nasal mucosa is pink. If the mucous membrane is blue and white, you may have allergic rhinitis or some kind of nasal allergy that causes inflammation. Redness of the nose usually indicates an infection.
Lipopeptide drugs, can effectively block the membrane fusion caused by COVID-19, etc., can use nasal medicine to prevent virus infection. Until the drug is developed, it is important to wear a mask and protect your mouth and nose.